CONSTITUTION (FUNDAMENTAL LAW) OF
THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS
                               
As Amended to January 1, 1964
                               
                               
                               
Chapter 1

THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE

Article 1
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a socialist state of workers and
peasants.

Article 2
The political foundation of the U.S.S.R. is the Soviets of Working People's
Deputies, which grew and became strong as a result of the overthrow of the
power of the landlords and capitalists and the conquest of the dictatorship of
the proletariat.

Article 3
All power in the U.S.S.R. belongs to the working people of town and country as
represented by the Soviets of Working People's Deputies.

Article 4
The economic foundation of the U.S.S.R. is the socialist system of economy and
the socialist ownership of the instruments and means of production, firmly
established as a result of the liquidation of the capitalist system of 
economy, the abolition of private ownership of the instruments and means of
production, and the elimination of the exploitation of man by man.

Article 5
Socialist property in the U.S.S.R. exists either in the form of state property
(belonging to the whole people) or in the form of co-operative and
collective-farm property (property of collective farms, property of 
co-operative societies)

Article 6
The land, its mineral wealth, waters, forests, mills, factories, mines, rail,
water and air transport, banks, communications, large state-organized
agricultural enterprises (state farms, machine and tractor stations and the
like), as well as municipal enterprises and the bulk of the dwelling-houses in
the cities and industrial localities, are state property, that is, belong to
the whole people.
         
Article 7
The common enterprises of collective farms and co-operative
organizations, with their live-stock and implements, the products of the
collective farms and co-operative organizations, as well as their common
buildings, constitute the common, socialist property of the collective farms
and co-operative organizations.
Every household in a collective farm, in addition to its basic income from the
common, collective-farm enterprise, has for its personal use a small plot of
household land and, as its personal property, a subsidiary husbandry on the
plot, a dwelling-house, live-stock, poultry and minor agricultural
implements--in accordance with the rules of the agricultural artel.

Article 8
The land occupied by collective farms is secured to them for their use free of
charge an for an unlimited time, that is, in perpetuity.
         
Article 9
Alongside the socialist system of economy, which is the predominant form of
economy in the U.S.S.R., the law permits the small private economy of
individual peasants and handicraftsmen based on their own labour and
precluding the exploitation of the labour of others.
         
Article 10 
The personal property right of citizens in their incomes and savings from
work, in their dwelling-houses and subsidiary home enterprises, in articles of
domestic economy and use and articles of personal use and convenience, as well
as the right of citizens to inherit personal property, is protected by law.
 
Article 11
The economic life of the U.S.S.R. is determined and directed by the state
national-economic plan, with the aim of increasing the public wealth, of
steadily raising the material and cultural standards of the working people, of
consolidating the independence of the U.S.S.R. and strengthening its defensive
capacity.

Article 12
Work in the U.S.S.R. is a duty and a matter of honour for every able-bodied
citizen, in accordance with the principle: "He who does not work, neither
shall he eat." The principle applied in the U.S.S.R. is that of socialism:
"From each according to his ability, to each according to his work."

Chapter II
THE STATE STRUCTURE

Article 13
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is a federal state, formed on the
basis of a voluntary union of equal Soviet Socialist Republics, namely:
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic
The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic
The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic
The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

Article 14
The jurisdiction of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, as represented by
its higher organs of state power and organs of state administration embraces:
a) Representation of the U.S.S.R. in international relations, conclusion,
ratification and denunciation of treaties of the U.S.S.R. with other states,
establishment of general procedure governing the relations of Union Republics
with foreign states;
b) Questions of war and peace;
c) Admission of new republics into the U.S.S.R.;
d) Control over the observance of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R., and
ensuring conformity of the Constitutions of the Union Republics with the
Constitution of the U.S.S.R.
e) Confirmation of alterations of boundaries between Union Republics.
f) Confirmation of the formation of new Autonomous Republics and
Autonomous Regions within Union Republics;
g) Organization of the defence of the U.S.S.R., direction of all the Armed
Forces of the U.S.S.R., determination of directing principles territory of
governing the organization of the military formations of the Union Republics;
Foreign trade on the basis of state monopoly;
i) Safeguarding the security of the state;
j) Determination of the national-economic plans of the U.S.S.R.;
k) Approval of the consolidated state budget of the U.S.S.R. and of the report
on its fulfilment; determination of the taxes and revenues which go to the 
Union, the Republican and the local budgets;
l) Administration of the banks, industrial and agricultural institutions and
enterprises and also trading enterprises of all-Union subordination; general
guidance of industry and construction of Union-Republic importance;
m) Administration of transport and communications of all-Union
importance;
n) Direction of the monetary and credit system;
o) Organization of state insurance;
p) Contracting and granting of loans;
q) Determination of the basic principles of land tenure and of the use of
mineral wealth, forests and waters;
r) Determination of the basic principles in the spheres of education and
public health;
s) Organization of a uniform system of national-economic statistics;
t) Determination of the fundamental principles of labour legislation;
u) Determination of the fundamental principles of legislation concerning the
judicial system and judicial procedure; and of the fundamental principles of
criminal and civil legislation;
o) Legislation concerning Union citizenship; legislation concerning
Wi Determination of the.fundamental principles of legislation concerning
marriage and the family;
x) Issuing of all-Union acts of amnesty.
        
Article 15 
The sovereignty of the Union Republics is limited only in the spheres defined
in Article 14 of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. Outside of these spheres 
each Union Republic exercises state authority independently.
The U.S.S.R. protects the sovereign rights of the Union Republics.
        
Article 16       
Each Union Republic has its own Constitution, which takes account of the
specific features of the Republic and is drawn up in full conformity with the
Constitution of the U.S.S.R.

Article 17
The right freely to secede from the U.S.S.R. is reserved to every Union
Republic.

Article 18
The territory of a Union Republic may not be altered without its consent.

Article 18-a
Each Union Republic has the right to enter into direct relations with foreign
states and to conclude agreements and exchange diplomatic and, consular
representatives with them.

Article 18-b
Each Union Republic has its own Republican military formations.

Article 19
The laws of the U.S.S.R. have the same force within the territory of every
Union Republic.

Article 20
In the event of divergence between a law of a Union Republic and a law of the
Union, the Union law prevails.

Article 21
Uniform Union citizenship is established for citizens of the U.S.S.R.
Every citizen of a Union Republic is a citizen of the U.S.S.R.

Article 22
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic includes the Bashkir, Buryat,
Daghestan, Kabardinian-Balkar, Kalmyk, Karelian, Komi, Mari, Mordovian, North
Ossetian, Tatar, Tuva, Udmurt, Chechen-Ingush, Chuvash and Yakut Autonomous
Soviet Socialist Republics; and the Adygei, Gorno-Altai, Jewish,
Karachayevo-Cherkess, and Khakass Autonomous Provinces.

Article 23
[Deleted, February 11, 1957]

Article 24
The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Nakhichevan
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh
Autonomous Province.

Article 25
The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Abkhazian Autonomous 
Soviet Socialist Republic, the Adjar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and
the South Ossetian Autonomous Province.

Article 26     
The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Soviet
Socialist Republic.

Article 27
The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic includes the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous
Province. 

Article 28         
Decision of questions relating to the provincial and territorial 
administrative structure of Union Republics is within the competence of Union
Republics.

Article 29 
[Deleted February 11, 1957] 

Article 29-a
[Deleted February 11,1957]
         
Article 29-b
[Deleted February 11, 1957] 

Chapter III
THE HIGHER ORGANS OF STATE POWER IN
THE UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

Article 30
The highest organ of state power in the U.S.S.R. is the Supreme Soviet of the
U.S.S.R.
         
Article 31
The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. exercises all rights vested in the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics in accordance with Article 14 of the Constitution,
in so far as they do not, by virtue of the Constitution, come within the
jurisdiction of organs of the U.S.S.R. that are accountable to the Supreme
Soviet of the U.S.S.R., that is, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the
U.S.S.R., the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R., and the Ministries of the
U.S.S.R.

Article 32 
The legislative power of the U.S.S.R. is exercised exclusively by the Supreme
Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

Article 33
The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. consists of two Chambers: the Soviet of the
Union and the Soviet of Nationalities.

Article 34
The Soviet of the Union is elected by the citizens of the U.S.S.R. voting by
election districts on the basis of one deputy for every 300,000 of the
population.

Article 35
The Soviet of Nationalities is elected by the citizens of the U.S.S.R. voting
by Union Republics, Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Provinces and National
Districts on the basis of 25 deputies from each Union Republic, 11 deputies
from each Autonomous Republic, 5 deputies from each Autonomous Province and 
one deputy from each National District.

Article 36
The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is elected for a term of four years.

Article 37
The two Chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., the Soviet of the 
Union and the Soviet of the Nationalities, have equal rights.

Article 38
The Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities have equal powers to
initiate legislation.

Article 39
A law is considered adopted if passed by both Chambers of the Supreme Soviet 
of the USSR by a simple majority vote in each.

Article 40
Laws passed by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are published in the
languages of the Union Republics over the signatures of the President and
Secretary of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

Article 41
Sessions of the Soviet of the Union and of the Soviet of Nationalities begin
and terminate simultaneously.

Article 42
The Soviet of the Union elects a Chairman of the Soviet of the Union and four
Vice-Chairmen.

Article 43
The Soviet of Nationalities elects a Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities
and four Vice-Chairmen.

Article 44
The Chairmen of the Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities 
preside at the sittings of the respective Chambers and have charge of
the conduct of their business and proceedings.

Article 45
Joint sittings of the two Chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are
presided over alternately by the Chairman of the Soviet of the Union and the
Chairman of the Soviet of Nationalities
         
Article 46
Sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. are convened by the Presidium 
of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. twice a year.
Extraordinary sessions are convened by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of
the U.S.S.R. at its discretion or on the demand of one of the Union Republics.

Article 47 
In the event of disagreement between the Soviet of the Union and the
Soviet of Nationalities, the question is referred for settlement to a
conciliation commission formed by the Chambers on a party basis.
If the conciliation commission fails to arrive at an agreement, or if its
decision fails to satisfy one of the Chambers, the question is considered
for a second time by the Chambers. Failing agreement between the two
Chambers, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. dissolves
the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. and orders new elections.

Article 48
The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. at a joint sitting of the two Chambers
elects the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., consisting of a
President of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., fifteen
Vice-Presidents--one for each of the Union Republics--a Secretary of the
Presidium and sixteen members of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the
U.S.S.R. 
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is accountable to the
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. for all its activities. 

Article 49
The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.:
a) Convenes the sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.;
b) Issues decrees;
c) Gives interpretations of the laws of the U.S.S.R. in operation;
d) Dissolves the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. in conformity with Article 47
of the Constitution of the U.S.S.R. and orders new elections;
e) Conducts nation-wide polls (referendums) on its own initiative or on the
demand of one of the Union Republics ;
f) Annuls decisions and orders of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and
of the Councils of Ministers of the Union Republics if they do not conform to
law; 
g) In the intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.,
releases and appoints Ministers of the U.S.S.R. on the recommendation of the
Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R., subject to subsequent
confirmation by the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.;
h) Institutes decorations (Orders and Medals) and titles of honour of the
US.S.R.;
i) Awards Orders and Medals and confers titles of honour of the U.S.S.R.;
j) Exercises the right of pardon;
k) Institutes military tides, diplomatic ranks and other special titles
l) Appoints and removes the high command of the Armed Forces of
m) In the intervals between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.,
proclaims a state of war in the event of military attack on the U.S.S.R., or
when necessary to fulfil international treaty obligations concerning mutual
defence against aggression;
n) Orders general or partial mobilization;
o) Ratifies and denounces international treaties of the U.S.S.R.;
p) Appoints and recalls plenipotentiary representatives of the U.S.S.R. to
foreign states;
q) Receives the letters of credence and recall of diplomatic representatives
accredited to it by foreign states;
r) Proclaims martial law in separate localities or throughout the U.S.S.R. in
the interests of the defence of the U.S.S.R. or of the maintenance of public
order and the security of the state.

Article 50
The Soviet of the Union and the Soviet of Nationalities elect Credentials
Committees to verify the credentials of the members of the respective 
Chambers. On the report of the Credentials Committees, the Chambers decide
whether to recognize the credentials of deputies or to annul their election.

Article 51

The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., when it deems necessary, appoints
commissions of investigation and audit on any matter.
It is the duty of all institutions and officials to comply with the demands of
such commissions and to submit to them all necessary materials and documents.

Article 52
A member of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. may not be prosecuted or
arrested without the consent of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., or, when
the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is not in session, without the consent of
the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

Article 53
On the expiration of the term of office of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.,
or on its dissolution prior to the expiration of its term of office,the
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. retains its powers until the
newly-elected Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. shall have formed a new Presidium
of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

Article 54
On the expiration of the term of office of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.,
or in the event of its dissolution prior to the expiration of its term of
office, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. orders new
elections to be held within a period not exceeding two months from the date of
expiration of the term of office or dissolution of the Supreme Soviet of the
U.S.S.R. 
         
Article 55
The newly-elected Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is convened by the outgoing
Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. not later than three months
after the elections.

Article 56 
The Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., at a joint sitting of the two Chambers,
appoints the Government of the U.S.S.R., namely, the Council of Ministers of 
the U.S.S.R.


Chapter IV  
THE HIGHER ORGANS OF STATE POWER
IN THE UNION REPUBLICS

Article 57
The highest organ of state power in a Union Republic is the Supreme Soviet of 
the Union Republic.

Article 58
The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic is elected by the citizens of the 
Republic for a term of four years.
The basis of representation is established by the Constitution of the Union
Republic. 

Article 59 
The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic is the sole legislative organ of the
Republic. 

Article 60 
The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic:
a) Adopts the Constitution of the Republic and amends it in conformity with
Article l6 of the Constitution of the U S S R
b) Confirms the Constitutions of the Autonomous Republics forming part of it
and defines the boundaries of their territories.
c) Approves the economic plan and the budget of the Republic forms economic
administrative regions of the Republic
d) Exercises the right of amnesty and pardon of citizens sentenced by the
judicial organs of the Union Republic;
e) Decides questions of representation of the Union Republic in its
international relations;
f) Determines the manner of organizing the Republic's military formations.

Article 61
The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic elects the Presidium of the Supreme
Soviet of the Union Republic, consisting of a President of the Presidium of 
the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic, Vice-Presidents, a Secretary of the
Presidium and members of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Union
Republic.
The powers of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic are
defined by the Constitution of the Union Republic.

Article 62
The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic elects a Chairman and Vice-Chairmen to
conduct its sittings.

Article 63
The Supreme Soviet of a Union Republic appoints the Government of the Union
Republic, namely, the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic.


Chapter V
THE ORGANS OF STATE ADMINISTRATION OF THE
UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

Article 64
The highest executive and administrative organ of the state power of the Union
of Soviet Socialist Republics is the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R.

Article 65
The Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. is responsible and accountable to the
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R., or, in the intervals between sessions of the
Supreme Soviet, to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

Article 66
The Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. issues decisions and orders on the
basis and in pursuance of the laws in operation, and verifies their
execution.

Article 67
Decisions and orders of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. are binding
throughout the territory of the U.S.S.R.

Article 68
The Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R.:
 a) Co-ordinates and directs the work of the Supreme Council of National
Economy U.S.S.R. of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and of the
all-Union and Union-Republican Ministries of the U.S.S.R. and of the State
Committees of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and of other
institutions under its jurisdiction;
b) Adopts measures to carry out the national-economic plan and the state
budget, and to strengthen the credit and monetary system;
c) Adopts measures for the maintenance of public order, for the protection of
the interests of the state, and for the safeguarding of the rights of 
citizens;
d) Exercises general guidance in the sphere of relations with foreign states;
e) Fixes the annual contingent of citizens to be called up for military
service and directs the general organization of the Armed Forces of the
country
f) Sets up State Committees of the U.S.S.R. and also whenever necessary,
special Committees and Central Administrations under the Council of Ministers
of the U.S.S.R. for economic and cultural affairs and defence.

Article 69
The Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. has the right, in respect of those
branches of administration and economy which come within the jurisdiction of
the U.S.S.R., to suspend decisions and orders of the Councils of Ministers of
the Union Republic, to annul orders and instructions of Ministers of the
U.S.S.R. and also administrative acts of other institutions subject to their
jurisdiction.

Article 70
The Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of
the U.S.S.R. and consists of:
The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R.;
The First Vice-Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R.;
The Vice-Chairmen of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R.;
The Ministers of the U.S.S.R.;
The Chairman of the Council of National Economy U.S.S.R.;
The Chairman of the State Council for Construction U.S.S.R.;
The Chairman of the State Planning Committee U.S.S.R.;
The Chairman of the Committee of Party-State Control of the Central
Committee of the C.P.S.U. and of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R.;
The Chairman of the State Committee on Labour and Wages;
The Chairman of the State Committee for the Coordination of Scientific 
Research Work U.S.S.R.;
The Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Committee for Radio
Broadcasting and Television;
The Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Committee for the
Moving Picture Industry;
The Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Committee for the
Press.
The Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Committee for Trade;
The Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Committee for Grain
Procurement;
The Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Committee for Foreign
Economic Relations;
The Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Committee for 
Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries;
The Chairman of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' State Committee for State
Security;
The Chairman of the Board of the U.S.S.R. State Bank;
The Director of the U.S.S.R. Council of Ministers' Central Statistical
Administration;
The Chairmen of the Union Republic Councils of Ministers are members ex 
officio of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R.

Article 71
The Government of the U.S.S.R. or a Minister of the U.S.S.R. to whom a 
question of a member of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. is addressed must
give a verbal or written reply in the respective Chamber within a period not
exceeding three days.

Article 72
The Ministers of the U.S.S.R. direct the branches of state administration
which come within the jurisdiction of the U.S.S.R.

Article 73
The Ministers of the U.S.S.R., within the limits of the jurisdiction of their
respective Ministries, issue orders and instructions on the basis and in
pursuance of the laws in operation, and also of decisions and orders of
the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R., and verify their execution.

Article 74
The Ministries of the U.S.S.R. are either all-Union or Union-Republican
Ministries.

Article 75
Each all-Union Ministry directs the branch of state administration entrusted
to it throughout the territory of the U.S.S.R. either directly or through
bodies appointed by it.

Article 76
The Union-Republican Ministries, as a rule, direct the branches of state
administration entrusted to them through corresponding Ministries of the
Union Republics; they administer directly only a definite and limited number
of enterprises according to a list confirmed by the Presidium of the Supreme
Soviet of the U.S.S.R.

Article 77
The following Ministries are all-Union Ministries:
Foreign Trade
Merchant Marine
Transportation

Article 78
The following Ministries are Union-Republican Ministries:
Higher and Specialized Secondary Education
Public Health
Foreign Affairs
Culture
Defense
Communications
Agriculture
Finance


Chapter VI
THE ORGANS OF STATE ADMINISTRATION OF
THE UNION REPUBLICS

Article 79
The highest executive and administrative organ of the state power of a
Union Republic is the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic.

Article 80
The Council of Ministers of a Union Republic is responsible and accountable
to the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic, or, in the intervals between
sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic, to the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of the Union Republic.

Article 81
The Council of Ministers of a Union Republic issues decisions and orders on 
the basis and in pursuance of the laws in operation of the U.S.S.R. and of the
Union Republic, and of the decisions and orders of the Council of Ministers of
the U.S.S.R., and verifies their execution.

Article 82

The Council of Ministers of a Union Republic has the right to suspend 
decisions and orders of the Councils of Ministers of its Autonomous Republics,
annul decisions and orders of the Executive Committees of the Soviets of
Working People's Deputies of its Territories, Provinces and Autonomous
Provinces, and also decisions and orders of the Republic Council of National
Economy and of the Councils of National Economy of the economic administrative
regions of the Republic.

Article 83
The Council of Ministers of a Union Republic is appointed by the Supreme 
Soviet of the Union Republic and consists of:
The Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Union Republic;
The Vice-Chairmen of the Council of Ministers;
The Ministers;
The Chairmen of the State Committees, Commissions, and Directors of
the other departments of the Council of Ministers, organized by the Supreme
Soviet of the Union Republic in accordance with the Constitution of the Union
Republic.

Article 84
The Ministers of a Union Republic direct the branches of state administration
which come within the jurisdiction of the Union Republic.

Article 85
The Ministers of a Union Republic, within the limits of the jurisdiction of
their respective Ministries, issue orders and instructions on the basis and in
pursuance of the laws of the U.S.S.R. and of the Union Republic, of the
decisions and orders of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. and the
Council of Ministers of the Union Republic, and of the orders and
instructions of the Union-Republican Ministries of the U.S.S.R.

Article 86
The Ministries of a Union Republic are either Union-Republican or Republican
Ministries.

Article 87
Each Union-Republican Ministry directs the branch of state administration
entrusted to it, and is subordinate both to the Council of Ministers of the
Union Republic and to the corresponding Union-Republican Ministry of the
U.S.S.R.
                     
Article 88
Each Republican Ministry directs the branch of state administration
entrusted to it and is directly subordinate to the Council of Ministers of the
Union Republic.

Article 88a
[Deleted, December 19, 1963]
                                     
Article 88b
[Deleted, December 19,1963]


Chapter VII
THE HIGHER ORGANS OF STATE POWER IN THE
AUTONOMOUS SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

Article 89
The highest organ of state power in an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic is
the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic.

Article 90
The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic is elected by the citizens of the
Republic for a term of four years on a basis of representation established by
the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic.

Article 91
The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic is the sole legislative organ of
the Autonomous Republic.

Article 92
Each Autonomous Republic has its own Constitution, which takes account of the
specific features of the Autonomous Republic and is drawn up in full 
conformity with the Constitution of the Union Republic.

Article 93
The Supreme Soviet of an Autonomous Republic elects the Presidium of the
Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Republic and appoints the Council of 
Ministers of the Autonomous Republic, in accordance with its Constitution.


Chapter VIII
THE LOCAL ORGANS OF STATE POWER

Article 94
The organs of state power in Territories, Provinces, Autonomous Provinces,
Areas, Counties, Cities and rural localities ( starlitsas, Villages, Hamlets,
Kishlaks, Auls) are the Soviets of Working People's Deputies.

Article 95
The Soviets of Working People's Deputies of Territories, Provinces, Autonomous
Provinces, Areas, Counties, Cities and rural localities (Stanitsas, Villages,
Hamlets, Kishlaks, Auls) are elected by the working people of the respective
Territories, Provinces, Autonomous Provinces, Areas, Counties, Cities or rural
localities for a term of two years.

Article 96
The basis of representation for Soviets of Working People's Deputies is
determined by the Constitutions of the Union Republics.

Article 97
The Soviets of Working People's Deputies direct the work of the organs of
administration subordinate to them, ensure the maintenance of public order, 
the observance of the laws and the protection of the rights of citizens, 
direct local economic and cultural affairs and draw up the local budgets.

Article 98
The Soviets of Working People's Deputies adopt decisions and issue orders
within the limits of the powers vested in them by the laws of the U.S.S.R. and
of the Union Republic.

Article 99
The executive and administrative organ of the Soviet of Working People's
Deputies of a Territory, Province, Autonomous Province, Area, County, City or
rural locality is the Executive Committee elected by it, consisting of a
Chairman, Vice-Chairman, a Secretary and members.

Article 100
The executive and administrative organ of the Soviet of Working People's
Deputies in a small locality, in accordance with the Constitution of the Union
Republic, is the Chairman, the Vice-Chairman and the Secretary elected by the
Soviet of Working People's Deputies.

Article 101
The executive organs of the Soviets of Working People's Deputies are directly
accountable both to the Soviets of Working People's Deputies which elected 
them and to the executive organ of the superior Soviet of Working People's
Deputies.


Chapter IX
THE COURTS AND THE PROSECUTOR'S OFFICE

Article 102
In the U S.S.R. justice is administered by the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R.,
the Supreme Courts of the Union Republics, the Courts of the Territories,
Provinces, Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Provinces and Areas, the Special
Courts of the U.S.S.R. established by decision of the Supreme Soviet of the
U.S.S.R.. and the People's Courts.

Article 103
In all Courts cases are tried with the participation of lay judges, except in
cases specially provided for by law.

Article 104
The Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. is the highest judicial organ. The Supreme
Court of the U.S.S.R. is charged with the supervision of the judicial
activities of all the judicial organs of the U.S.S.R. as well as of the
judicial organs of the Union Republics within the ]imitations established by
law.

Article 105
The Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R. is elected by the Supreme Soviet of the
U.S.S.R. for a term of five years.
The presidents of the Supreme Courts of the Union Republics are members ex
officio of the Supreme Court of the U.S.S.R.

Article 106
The Supreme Courts of the Union Republics are elected by the Supreme Soviets 
of the Union Republics for a term of five years.

Article 107
The Supreme Courts of the Autonomous Republics are elected by the Supreme
Soviets of the Autonomous Republics for a term of five years.

Article 108                                            .
The Courts of Territories, Provinces, Autonomous Provinces and Areas are
elected by the Soviets of Working People's Deputies of the respective
Territories, Provinces, Autonomous Provinces or Areas for a term of five
years.

Article 109
People's judges of county (city) People's Courts are elected by citizens of 
the county (city) on the basis of universal, equal, and direct suffrage by
secret ballot for a term of five years.
People's lay judges of county (city) People's Courts are elected at general
meetings of workers, clerks, and peasants at their place of work or residence
and of soldiers at their military unit for a term of two years.

Article 110
Judicial proceedings are conducted in the language of the Union Republic,
Autonomous Republic or Autonomous Province, persons not knowing this language
being guaranteed the opportunity of fully acquainting themselves with the
material of the case through an interpreter and likewise the right to use 
their own language in court.

Article 111
In all Courts of the U.S.S.R. cases are heard in pub]ic, unless otherwise
provided for by law, and the accused is guaranteed the right to defence.

Article 112
Judges are independent and subject only to the law.

Article 113
Supreme supervisory power to ensure the strict observance of the law by all
Ministries and institutions subordinated to them, as well as by officials and
citizens of the U.S.S.R. generally, is vested in the Prosecutor-General of the
U.S.S.R.

Article 114
The Prosecutor-General of the U.S.S.R. is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of
the U.S.S.R. for a term of seven years.

Article 115
Prosecutors of Republics, Territories, Provinces, Autonomous Republics and
Autonomous Provinces are appointed by the Prosecutor-General of the U.S.S.R.
for a term of five years.

Article 116
Area, County and City prosecutors are appointed by the Prosecutors of the 
Union Republics, subject to the approval of the Prosecutor-General of the
U.S.S.R., for a term of five years.

Article 117
The organs of the Prosecutor's Office perform their functions independently of
any local organs whatsoever, being subordinate solely to the 
Prosecutor-General of the U.S.S.R.


Chapter X
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZENS

Article 118
Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to work, that is, the right to
guaranteed employment and payment for their work in accordance with
its quantity and quality.
The right to work is ensured by the socialist organization of the national
economy, the steady growth of the productive forces of Soviet society,
the elimination of the possibility of economic crises, and the abolition of
unemployment. 

Article 119
Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to rest and leisure.
The right to rest and leisure is ensured by the establishment of a seven-hour
day for industrial, office, and professional workers, the reduction of the
working day to six hours for a number of arduous trades and to four hours in
shops where conditions of work are particularly arduous, by the institution of
annual vacations with full pay for industrial, office, and professional
workers, and by the provision of a wide network of sanatoria, rest homes and
clubs for the accommodation of the working people.

Article 120
Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to maintenance in old age and also in
case of sickness or disability.
This right is ensured by the extensive development of social insurance of
industrial, office, and professional workers at state expense, free medical
service for the working people, and the provision of a wide network of health
resorts for the use of the working people.

Article 121
Citizens of the U.S.S.R. have the right to education.
This right is guaranteed by universal compulsory eight-year education, by
extensively developed general secondary polytechnical education, professional
technical education, secondary special and higher education on the basis of
maintaining a link between education and life and production, by extensively
developed evening and correspondence schools, by free education of all kinds,
by a system of state living allowances, by education in schools in a native
language, by organization in factories, in state farms, and in collective 
farms of production, technological, and agronomic study for toilers without
charge.

Article 122
Women in the U.S.S.R. are accorded equal rights with men in all spheres of
economic, government, cultural, political and other public activity.
The possibility of exercising these rights is ensured by women being accorded
an equal right with men to work, payment for work, rest and leisure, social
insurance and education, and by state protection of the interests of mother 
and child, state aid to mothers of large families and unmarried mothers,
maternity leave with full pay, and the provision of a wide network of 
maternity homes, nurseries and kindergartens.

Article 123
Equality of rights of citizens of the U.S.S.R., irrespective of their
nationality or race, in all spheres of economic, government, cultural,
political and other public activity, is an indefeasible law.
Any direct or indirect restriction of the rights of, or, conversely, the
establishment of any direct or indirect privileges for, citizens on account
of their race or nationality, as well as any advocacy of racial or national
exclusiveness or hatred and contempt, is punishable by law.

Article 124
In order to ensure to citizens freedom of conscience, the church in the
U.S.S.R. is separated from the state, and the school from the church.
Freedom of religious worship and freedom of anti-religious propaganda is
recognized for all citizens.

Article 125
In conformity with the interests of the working people, and in order to
strengthen the socialist system, the citizens of the U.S.S.R. are guaranteed
a) freedom of speech;
b) freedom of the press;
c) freedom of assembly, including the holding of mass meetings;
d) freedom of street processions and demonstrations.
These civil rights are ensured by placing at the disposal of the working 
people and their organizations printing presses, stocks of paper,
public buildings, the streets, communications facilities and other material
requisites for the exercise of these rights.

Article 126
In conformity with the interests of the working people, and in order to 
develop the organizational initiative and political activity of the masses
of the people, citizens of the U.S.S.R. are guaranteed the right to unite
in public organizations: trade unions, co-operative societies, youth
organizations, sport and defence organizations, cultural, technical and
scientific societies; and the most active and politically-conscious citizens
in the ranks of the working class, working peasants and working intelligentsia
voluntarily unite in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, which is the
vanguard of the working people in their struggle to build communist society
and is the leading core of all organizations of the working people, both 
public and state.

Article 127
Citizens of the U.S.S.R. are guaranteed inviolability of the person. No person
may be placed under arrest except by decision of a court or with the sanction
of a prosecutor.

Article 128
The inviolability of the homes of citizens and privacy of correspondence
are protected by law.

Article 129 
The U.S.S.R. affords the right of asylum to foreign citizens persecuted for
defending the interests of the working people, or for scientific activities,
or for struggling for national liberation.

Article 130
It is the duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R. to abide by the Constitution
of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, to observe the laws, to maintain
labour discipline, honestly to perform public duties, and to respect the rules
of socialist intercourse.

Article 131
It is the duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R. to safeguard and fortify
public, socialist property as the sacred and inviolable foundation of the
Soviet system, as the source of the wealth and might of the country, as the
source of the prosperity and culture of all the working people.
Persons committing offences against public, socialist property are enemies of
the people.

Article 132
Universal military service is law.
Military service in the Armed Forces of the U.S.S.R. is an honourable duty of
the citizens of the U.S.S.R.

Article 133
To defend the country is the sacred duty of every citizen of the U.S.S.R.
Treason to the Motherland--violation of the oath of allegiance, desertion
to the enemy, impairing the military power of the state, espionage--is
punishable with all the severity of the law as the most heinous of crimes.


Chapter XI
THE ELECTORAL SYSTEM

Article 134
Members of all Soviets of Working People's Deputies--of the Supreme Soviet of
the U.S.S.R., the Supreme Soviets of the Union Republics, the Soviets of
Working People's Deputies of the Territories and Provinces, the Supreme 
Soviets of the Autonomous Republics, the Soviets of Working People's Deputies
of the Autonomous Provinces, and the Area, County, City and rural (Stanitsa,
Village, Hamlet, Kishlak, Aul) Soviets of Working People's Deputies--are 
chosen by the electors on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by
secret ballot.

Article 135
Elections of deputies are universal: all citizens of the U.S.S.R. who have
reached the age of eighteen, irrespective of race or nationality, sex,
religion, education, domicile, social origin, property status or past
activities, have the right to vote in the election of deputies, with the
exception of persons recognized as insane in accordance with the procedure
established by law.
Every citizen of the U.S.S.R. who has reached the age of twenty-three is 
eligible for the election to the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. irrespective 
of race or nationality, sex, religion, education, domicile, social origin, 
property status or past activities.

Article 136
Elections of deputies are equal; each citizen has one vote; all citizens 
participate in elections on an equal footing.

Article 137
Women have the right to elect and be elected on equal terms with men.

Article 138
Citizens serving in the Armed Forces of the U.S.S.R. have the right to elect
and be elected on equal terms with all other citizens.

Article 139
Elections of deputies are direct: all Soviets of Working People's Deputies,
from rural and City Soviets of Working People's Deputies to the Supreme
Soviet of the U.S.S.R., are elected by the citizens by direct vote.

Article 140
Voting at elections of deputies is secret.

Article 141
Candidates are nominated by election districts.
The right to nominate candidates is secured to public organizations and
societies of the working people: Communist Party organizations, trade unions,
co-operatives, youth organizations and cultural societies.

Article 142
It is the duty of every deputy to report to his electors on his work and on 
the work of his Soviet of Working People's Deputies, and he may be recalled at
any time upon decision of a majority of the electors in the manner established
by law. 


Chapter XII
ARMS, FLAG, CAPITAL

Article 143
The arms of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics are a sickle and hammer
against a globe depicted in the rays of the sun and surrounded by ears of
grain, with the inscription "Workers of All Countries, Unite!" in the 
languages of the Union Republics. At the top of the arms is a five-pointed
star.

Article 144
The state flag of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is of red cloth with
the sickle and hammer depicted in gold in the upper corner near the staff and
above them a five-pointed red star bordered in gold. The ratio of the width to
the length is 1:2.

Article 145
The Capital of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is the City of Moscow.


Chapter XIII
PROCEDURE FOR AMENDING THE CONSTITUTION

Article 146
The Constitution of the U.S.S.R. may be amended only by decision of the 
Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R. adopted by a majority of not less than
two-thirds of the votes in each of its chambers.